Understanding Undescended Testicles: When Does It Happen?

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Understanding Undescended Testicles: When Does It Happen?

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The journey of human development before and after birth is a remarkable process filled with numerous milestones, including those concerning our reproductive system. One aspect of this journey that may raise questions for parents is when do a boy’s testicles descend into the scrotum? This article explores the topic of undescended testicles, providing insights into the causes, symptoms, treatment, and potential complications associated with this condition.

When Do Your “Balls” Drop?

The colloquial expression “when do your balls drop” typically refers to the natural descent of a boy’s testicles into the scrotum, which is an essential part of male development. In most cases, a boy’s testicles descend into the scrotum by the time he is 9 months old. However, undescended testicles can occur, presenting a range of considerations for parents and healthcare providers.

Understanding the Causes

Undescended testicles are more common in infants born prematurely. While this condition is less frequent in full-term infants, it’s essential to note that it can occur. In some instances, babies may have retractile testes, where the testicle is normal but temporarily pulled back out of the scrotum due to a muscle reflex. This phenomenon is common before puberty, and the testicles will typically descend naturally as the child matures, often eliminating the need for surgery.

However, testicles that do not naturally descend into the scrotum are considered abnormal. Even if an undescended testicle is surgically brought into the scrotum, there remains a heightened risk of cancer development in that testicle, as well as in the other. Furthermore, bringing the testicle into the scrotum can enhance sperm production, improve fertility, and enable early cancer detection through examinations.

Recognizing Symptoms

In most cases, undescended testicles present no symptoms beyond the absence of a testicle in the scrotum, which is often referred to as an empty scrotum.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination by a healthcare provider. The provider may attempt to locate the undescended testicle in the abdominal wall above the scrotum. Imaging tests, such as ultrasounds or CT scans, may also be utilized.

Treatment options vary, but in most cases, the testicle will descend naturally during the child’s first year. If this does not occur, treatments may include hormone injections (B-HCG or testosterone) to encourage descent or surgical intervention (orchiopexy) as the primary treatment.

Early surgical intervention can prevent testicular damage and infertility. However, if an undescended testicle is discovered later in life, it may need to be removed due to reduced functionality and an increased cancer risk.

The Outlook

In most instances, undescended testicles resolve without treatment. Treatment, whether through medicine or surgery, tends to be successful. Routine testicle exams by a healthcare provider are recommended after the condition has been corrected.

In approximately 50% of males with undescended testicles, the testicles may not be found during surgery, a condition referred to as a vanished or absent testis. This phenomenon may be attributed to developmental factors during pregnancy.

Potential Complications

Possible complications associated with undescended testicles include:

  1. Testicular damage from surgery: While rare, this is a potential risk.
  2. Infertility: Untreated undescended testicles may lead to infertility later in life.
  3. Testicular cancer: There is an increased risk of testicular cancer in one or both testes when the condition persists.

When to Seek Medical Advice

If your child appears to have an undescended testicle, it’s advisable to consult a medical professional for evaluation and guidance.


Understanding the natural development of testicles and the potential challenges associated with undescended testicles is essential for parents and caregivers. Timely medical intervention, when necessary, can ensure the health and well-being of a child. For more informative articles and resources, visit the Kizzu homepage.

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